Corona Virus Epidemic

 

Corona Virus Epidemic

CRIME-COVID AND FACE WARE

Report by Nikki Stone - August 19th, 2020

 

CRIME REPORT IN THE AGE OF COVID-19 ANALYSING COVID-19 FROM A LAW ENFORCEMENT PERSPECTIVE

 

Introduction

As we all know, Crime has always been an issue from the beginning of Man's existence Theft, Domestic Violence, and a whole slew of other Violent crimes. 

But, since Covid-19 started and the stay-at-home orders, Violent Crime Has Skyrocketed. As families, extended and immediate, are forced to stay most of the time indoors and being around each other more than families have in the last 100 years. 

 

My mother and Father never spent this much time around one another, ever! As people are losing their jobs, from companies closing or downsizing, it would take years of our average day-to-day life to accumulate this much time spent together with just a few months of staying at home, due to Covis-19. 

 

Of course, you will have your exceptions to the rule, including work from home parents and retired couples, but they would have already acclimated to time spent with each other. Like a mother raising her children, though mothers can get stressed over raising the kids sometimes, think of how much t=stress it would be for dad if all of a sudden he had to take over the kids and mom went to work.

 

Reports of Spousal abuse have increased 200% since April. Tempers have flared over many world issues, Presidential, Law Enforcement strong-arming civilians, Job loss, you name it… Then throw Covid-19 into the mix along with social distancing, store shelves empty and stay-at-home orders, and you have one volatile mix of events. 

Many people are 100% positive we are on the verge of another civil war. 

According to inside information, county emergency services, and first responders, they have been on high alert for months, not just about civil war but more immediate concerns like rioting, looting, vandalism. 

We have all been put aside due to this virus and all the side effects it has caused. I know for all of us here, it has been a real learning experience on human behavior, and I believe we have entered a NEW NORM for society as a whole. 

Many health organizations and hospitals are quoting that masks will now be worn regularly out in public, and it will start a new fashion trend in face ware. We have begun to see this trend on social media, even now on TV commercials for face coverings in all styles and colors; gone are the days of plain old surgical masks for the public.

 

 

Law Enforcement and Covid-19

 

To start with, during an outbreak of a deadly pathogen, Law Enforcement duties become tripled. 

They are responsible for helping Health and Government agencies control the spread of the virus, and they are accountable for serving the community and still maintain law and order. This, in turn, puts the officers at high risk for Covid-19 infection due to their close contact with the public. 

The CDC-Centers For Disease Control and Prevention has set the guidelines for Law Enforcement safety during a Pandemic. Law Enforcement Agencies in much of the country have responded to this Pandemic in various ways, reassigning personnel to high-traffic public areas, suspending training, calls, community outreach programs, and suspending the issuing of citations for low-level crimes. 

 

They are implementing safety precautions for all law enforcement officers and limiting department facilities. However, COVID-19 has exposed many obstacles for law enforcement in the area of communication and resource management. 

The enforcement of public health restrictions, as well as some changes to local crime patterns. 

 

Based on the early phase of Covid-19, their initial Response, and the unforeseen obstacles of the COVID-19 outbreak, the directions for future responses to pandemics have changed to ensure the safety and security of all law enforcement officers in the United States and the communities in which they serve. 

 

As the world and every state and territory in the United States and urban and rural jurisdictions grapple with the public health crisis and the economic repercussions of COVID-19, it has never been more critical to assess the immediate effects of the Pandemic on law enforcement and make drastic changes to prevent the outcome that has accrued during this Pandemic. 

 

In the United States, "best practice and strategies for law enforcement currently being implemented is by "flattening the curve," ensure public safety, and to protect law enforcement officers." 

(Article PMC 7275851 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) 

 

 

Law Enforcement: CDC recommended Response

 

Considering the spread of Covid-19 and person-to-person contact, the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention have set the basic rules to help protect law enforcement from contracting COVID-19 through respiratory droplets; all law enforcement is at a very high risk of exposure due to close contact with the public. The guidelines can be downloaded here at this link (CDC,2020). 

 

 

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines 

 

1) social distancing (maintaining a distance of six feet or more from one other and avoiding exposure.

2) maintaining proper hand hygiene, washing for 20 seconds minimum.

3) avoiding touching your face with unwashed hands. 

The Problem is most Law enforcement officers cannot carry out their duties without being in close proximity to and don't always have access to sanitation supplies out in the field. In addition, LEO's ( Law Enforcement Officers) who work in correctional facilities are at extreme risk of exposure to contracting and spreading Covid-19 due to the facilities' enclosed design. Information from -(Maruschak, Sabol, Potter, Reid, & Cramer 2009). 

 

Over 2000 Law enforcement officers had tested positive to Covid-19 by April 2020, most of them in the New York City area. Thousands more law enforcement officers reported having contact with individuals who had tested positive for Covid-19. information from- (Cave & Dahir 2020; NPF, 2020). Considering this, there is a large concern for the well-being of LEO's and their families. Report from -Schuppe 2020).

 

Aside from the everyday dangers of keeping the peace and the danger of close contact with the public in general, the COVID-19 Pandemic has the threat of officers being intentionally contaminated. This past March, the Federal Bureau of Investigation alerted local law enforcement agencies that radical extremists, such as white supremacists groups, have asked members who are COVID-19 positive to spread the virus to law enforcement officers Via body fluids by breathing and sneezing on them as they walk down the street - more information (Margolin 2020). 

 

Many officers have reported being sneezed, spit, and coughed on by individuals claiming they are positive for the Covid-19 virus - report link (Bates 2020). 

 

To decrease the risk to law enforcement, many agencies have started working remotely if possible (Bates 2020; NPF 2020).

To prevent infection, the CDCP has designed protective recommendations for all first responders, such as officers, LEO's who will come into contact with public individuals infected with COVID-19. 

 

The CDC recommendations include: 

wearing PPE, gloves, mask, and eyewear as well as disposable gowns and overalls, also N95 masks or higher, that are approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); if N-95 respirators are not available, wear a facemask as an alternative until N95 supplies are restored. 

The CDC also recommends that all officers who come in contact with individuals while detaining them or arresting them should clean and disinfect all gear before reusing it.

 

Follow the procedure outlined by the CDC to decontaminate the gear, and dispose of any PPE, and follow CDC outlined procedure to launder clothing. If your agencies and law enforcement officers follow these guidelines, the CDC estimates that the health risk for law enforcement personnel would remain lower-link reports (CDC, 2020).

 

The Vera Institute of Justice - see link - (2020) also has recommended guidelines for first responders to help further prevent exposure to Covid-19 or any other pathogen. 

 

Their policies focus on the prevention of contagion in several ways, suggesting that agencies should: 

 

1. Ensure 911 dispatchers divert calls for health services when police are not necessary for contact.

2. implement temporary directives to release individuals on a citation, ticket, and summons that have committed a felony or pose a risk to the public.

3. Suspend all protocols that place people in custody, limiting the enforcement of things like bench warrants and arrest warrants, as well as parole violators.

4. limit Response to low-risk incidents and focus on critical incidents and community health needs (such as traffic stops, noise complaints, etc.

5. limit the department's contact with officers who are in direct contact with visitors.

6. Use online reporting options for public complaints and police reports.

7. Constant cleaning and disinfecting of patrol cars, precincts, stations, and other high-traffic areas. Report link (Vera Institute of Justice 2020).

 

Law Enforcement Crime Statistics

 

Sense, Covid-19 has shown its ugly face; specific Crime has taken a backseat to other crimes in the community. So here we will go over the stat's Pre Covid and post Covid virus.

Keep in mind, statistics will vary from state to state but with an overall perspective on the before and after crime rates. Not all cities and states will be covered here, but we will look at a few of our major cities, the four largest cities to be exact.

Here are some of the FBI crime links cause by Covid-19 

 

 

All Links Below are direct to FBI.GOV

 

Staying Safe During COVID-19 Pandemic

How to protect yourself and your family. Safeguard your wallet from emerging crimes and financial scams related to the COVID-19 crisis.

Protect Yourself from the Pandemic Scammers

The financial Crimes division discusses scams and crimes related to the COVID-19 Pandemic and offers tips on protecting yourself.

Listed above are just some of the impacts that Covid-19 is having on Crime and the world.

 

First, let's look at California; as of 2017, it is the largest state by population with a whopping 39.54 million residents.

 

Violent crimes in 2019

According to the Attorney General's office of California, they are tasked with collecting crime data to collect, analyze and report statistical data. Link to their website here https://oag.ca.gov/crime

 

Hate Crime 2018

 

Hate Crime in California 2018 

 

Statistics for hate crimes and the events, hate crimes and the victims of hate crimes, and suspects of hate crimes during 2018. This report also provides reports by districts and official city attorneys on the statistical number of hate crime cases given to prosecutors, the number of cases filed in court, and the disposition of those cases. 

 

Some of the key findings include:

  • Hate crime events 1,066 in the year 2018.
  • The number of suspects reported of hate crimes was 1,093 in 2018.
  • Hate crime events involving a racial bias 594 in 2018.
  • Anti-black or African American bias events 276 in 2018, 
  • Anti-Hispanic or Latino bias events 149 in 2018, 
  • Hate crime events involving a religion bias 201 in 2018.
  • Anti-Jewish bias events 126 in 2018.
  • Anti-Islamic (Muslim) bias events 28 in 2018.

 

Hate Crimes 2019

Hate Crime in the state of California in 2019 the statistics on hate crimes and events related to hate crimes, their victims and the victims of the hate crime itself, and the suspects of hate crimes during the year of 2018. 

These reports do not include any data on - hate incidents which are very different events. 

 

Hate crimes are very distinct from all hate incidents; hate incidents are motivated by hate and are protected by the First Amendment to freedom of expression. 

Examples of hate incidents include name-calling, insulting, and the distribution of hate material in public places. 

If a hate incident becomes threatening to any person or property, it can become a (hate) Crime. 

 

The report provides some statistics reported by elected city attorneys on the number of (hate) crimes referred to prosecutors, the number of total cases filed in courts, and dispositions of cases. 

 

Key findings from 2018 to 2019 include:

  • Hate crimes events 1,015.
  • The number of suspects in reported hate crimes is 967.
  • Hate crime events involving a racial bias 523.
    • Anti-black or African American bias events 243.
    • Anti-Hispanic or Latino bias events 110.
  • Hate crime events involving a religion bias 208.
    • Anti-Jewish bias events 141.
    • Anti-Islamic (Muslim) bias events 25. 
    • Hate crime events of a sexual orientation bias 233.
  • A hate crime that involved a sexual orientation bias 238 in 2018.

 

 


Some of the key findings include:

Some of the key findings include:

  • There were 1,739 homicides reported in 2018.
  • In 2018, 79.8 percent of homicide victims were male, and 20.2 percent were female.
  • When the victim-offender relationship was identified:
    • 45 % were killed by a friend or acquaintance;
    • 31.2 percent by a stranger; and
    • 18.2 percent by their spouse, parent, or child.
  • Of the homicides was the location reported:
    • 35.9 percent of these crimes occurred in the street or on sidewalks;
    • 25.4 % occurred the victim's residence; and
    • Ten percent in residence other than the victims.
  • Firearms are consistently the most common weapons used during homicides. And in 2018, of the homicides where the weapon was identified, 68.7 percent involved a firearm.

 

 

Homicide Reports 2019

Homicides in California for the year 2019 provide some information about the crimes of homicide, and including some demographic data on the victims, and persons arrested for the Crime of homicide, individuals sentenced to death for such crimes, as well as Police officers killed on duty, and all justifiable homicides. 

key findings from 2018 to 2019 include:

  • Homicides 1,679.
  • In 2019, 80.2 % of all homicide victims were male, and 19.8 % were females;

 

Introduction

Introduction

As we all know, Crime has always been an issue from the beginning of Man's existence Theft, Domestic Violence, and a whole slew of other Violent crimes. 

But, since Covid-19 started and the stay-at-home orders, Violent Crime Has Skyrocketed. As families, extended and immediate, are forced to stay most of the time indoors and being around each other more than families have in the last 100 years. 

 

As people are losing their jobs, from companies closing or downsizing, it would take years of our average day-to-day life to accumulate this much time spent together with just a few months of staying at home, due to Covis-19. 

 

Of course, you will have your exceptions to the rule, including work from home parents and retired couples, but they would have already acclimated to time spent with each other. Like a mother raising her children, though mothers can get stressed over raising the kids sometimes, think of how to much stress it would be for dad if all of a sudden he had to take over the kids and mom went to work.

 

Reports of Spousal abuse have increased 300% since the start.

Tempers have flared over many world issues, Presidential policy, alleged accounts of Law Enforcement strong-arming civilians, Job loss, and you name it… 

Then throw Covid-19 into the mix along with social distancing, store shelves being empty and stay-at-home orders, and you have one heck of a volatile mix of events. Many people are 100% positive we are on the verge of another civil war. 

 

According to our inside information, county emergency services and first responders have been on high alert for an already extended period of time in loo of the Pandemic. Not just about possible civil war but more immediate concerns like rioting, looting, vandalism. 

We have all been tossed aside due to Covid-19 and all the side effects it has caused. I know for all of us here, it has been a real learning experience on human behavior, and I believe we have entered a NEW NORM for society as a whole. 

 

Many health organizations are quoting that masks will now be worn regularly in public, and it will start a new fashion trend in face ware. 

We have begun to see this trend on social media, even now on TV commercials for face coverings in all styles and colors. The days of plain surgical masks are gone.

 

 

Covid-19 and the effects on Law Enforcement

During an outbreak of a deadly pathogen, Law Enforcement duties become tripled. 

They are not only responsible for helping Health and Government agencies control the spread of the virus, but they are also accountable for keeping the peace and serving their community. This, in turn, puts the officers at high risk for Covid-19 infection due to close contact with the public. 

The CDC has set up guidelines for Law Enforcement safety during a Pandemic. Law Enforcement Agencies in much of the country have responded to this Pandemic in various ways, reassigning personnel to high-traffic public areas, suspending training, calls, community outreach programs, and suspending the issuing of citations for low-level crimes. 

 

They are implementing safety precautions for all law enforcement officers and limiting department facilities. However, COVID-19 has exposed many obstacles for law enforcement in the area of communication and resource management. 

Enforcement of health restrictions, as well as some changes to local crime patterns. 

 

In the early phase of Covid-19, initial Response, and the unforeseen obstacles that the COVID-19 outbreak has caused, the directions for future responses to pandemics have changed our procedures to ensure the safety of all law enforcement officers in the United States and the communities in which they serve. 

 

As the world and every state and territory in the United States and urban and rural jurisdictions grapple with the public health crisis and the economic repercussions of COVID-19, it has never been more critical to assess the immediate effects of the Pandemic on law enforcement and make drastic changes to prevent the outcome that has accrued during this Pandemic. In the United States, "best practice and strategies for law enforcement currently being implemented is by "flattening the curve," ensure public safety, and to protect law enforcement officers." 

(Article PMC 7275851 ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) 

 

 

Law Enforcement: 

 

CDC recommended Response

To limit the spread of Covid-19 and person-to-person contact, the CDCP has set the basic rules to help protect law enforcement from contracting COVID-19 through respiratory droplets; all law enforcement is at a very high risk of exposure due to close contact with the public. 

 

The CDCP guidelines 

1) social distancing (maintaining a distance of six feet or more from another, avoiding unnecessary exposure.

2) maintaining proper hand hygiene by washing for at least 20 seconds

3) avoiding touching your face and mouth with unwashed hands. 

The Problem is most Law enforcement officers cannot carry out their duties without being in close proximity to and don't always have access to sanitation supplies out in the field. In addition, LEO's ( Law Enforcement Officers) who work in correctional facilities are at extreme risk of exposure to contracting and spreading Covid-19 due to the facilities' enclosed design. Information from -(Maruschak, Sabol, Potter, Reid, & Cramer 2009). 

 

Over 2000 Law enforcement officers had tested positive to Covid-19 by April 2020, most of them in the New York City area. Thousands more law enforcement officers reported having contact with individuals who had tested positive for Covid-19. information from- (Cave & Dahir 2020; NPF, 2020). Considering this, there is a large concern for the well-being of LEO's and their families. Report from -Schuppe 2020).

 

Aside from the everyday dangers of keeping the peace and the danger of close contact with the public in general, the COVID-19 Pandemic has the threat of officers being intentionally contaminated. This past March, the Federal Bureau of Investigation alerted local law enforcement agencies that radical extremists, such as white supremacists groups, have asked members who are COVID-19 positive to spread the virus to law enforcement officers Via body fluids by breathing and sneezing on them as they walk down the street - more information. 

Police officers reported being sneezed, spit, and coughed on by individuals claiming to be positive for the Covid-19 virus - report link (Bates 2020). 

 

To decrease the risk to law enforcement, many local agencies have started working remotely if possible (Bates 2020; NPF 2020).

To prevent infection, the CDCP has designed protective recommendations for all first responders, such as all Police Officers, Fire Department personnel, and paramedics, who have close contact with the public and individuals that may be infected with COVID-19. 

 

The CDC recommendations include: 

PPE is a must!, gloves, masks, and eyewear as well as disposable gowns and or overalls; also, N95 masks or higher should be worn that are approved by the National Institute Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); if N-95 respirators are not available, wear a facemask as an alternative until N95 supplies are restored. The CDC also recommends that all officers who come in contact with individuals while detaining them or arresting them should clean and disinfect all gear before reusing it.

Follow procedures outlined by the CDC to decontaminate your gear, and dispose of all PPE, and follow CDC outlined procedure to launder your clothing. 

 

If your agency and law enforcement officers follow these guidelines, the CDC estimates that the health risk for law enforcement personnel would be much lower risk. Reports (CDC, 2020).

The Vera Institute of Justice (2020) also has recommended guidelines for all first responders to help further prevent exposure to Covid-19 or any other pathogen. 

 

Their policies focus on the prevention of contagion in several ways, suggesting that agencies should: 

1. Ensure 911 dispatchers re-route calls to health services when police response is not necessary;

2. Issue directives for releasing individuals on a citation, ticket, and summons that have committed a lower class felony or pose a low risk to the public.

3. Suspend procedures to place individuals in custody unless a danger to the public, such as bench warrants and arrest warrants, as well as parole violations.

4. limit Response to low-risk incidents and focus on critical incidents and community health needs, such as traffic stops, noise complaints.

5. limit the department's contact with officers who are in direct contact with visitors.

6. Online reports and options for public complaints and police reports.

7. The increase of cleaning and disinfecting of all patrol cars and precincts, stations, and other high-volume traffic areas. 

Report link (Vera Institute of Justice 2020).

Law Enforcement Crime Statistics

Since Covid-19 has shown its ugly face, specific Crime has taken a backseat to other crimes in the community. So here we will go over the stat's Pre Covid and post Covid virus.

 

Please Keep in mind, statistics may vary from state to state but with an overall perspective on the before and after crime rates. Not all cities and states will be covered here, but we will look at a few of our major cities, the four largest cities to be exact.

FBI crime links caused by Covid-19 

 

The Below Links are direct to FBI.GOV

Staying Safe During COVID-19

How to protect yourself and your family. Safeguard your wallet from emerging crimes and financial scams related to the COVID-19 crisis.

Protect Yourself from Pandemic Scammers

The financial Crimes division discusses scams and crimes related to the COVID-19 Pandemic and offers tips on protecting yourself.

 

Listed above are just some of the impacts that Covid-19 is having on Crime and the world.

 

First, let's look at California; as of 2017, it is the largest state by population with a whopping 39.54 million residents.

 

Violent crimes in 2019

According to the Attorney General's office of California, they are tasked with collecting crime data to collect, analyze and report statistical data. Link to their website here https://oag.ca.gov/crime

 

Hate Crime 2018

 

Hate Crime in California 2018 

Statistics show hate crime events, hate crimes and offenses, victims of hate crimes, and suspects of hate crimes during 2018. 

This report provides some statistics reported by elected city attorneys on hate crimes and cases referred to the prosecutors, the number of filed claims in court, and the disposition of all those cases. 

 

The key findings include:

  • Hate crimes 1,066 in 2018.
  • The number of suspects for reported hate crimes was 1,093 in 2018.
  • Hate crimes involving a racial bias 594 in 2018.
  • Anti-African American bias events 276 in 2018, 
  • Anti-Hispanic bias events 149 in 2018, 
  • Hate crimes involving a religion bias 201 in 2018.
  • Anti-Jewish bias 126 in 2018.
  • Anti-Islamic (Muslim) bias events 28 in 2018.

 

 

Hate Crimes 2019    

Hate Crime in state of California for the year 2019

Presents statistics on hate crime incidents, crimes and events, hate crime offenses, victims of hate crimes, and suspects of hate crimes during 2018. 

The report on hate incidents. Hate crimes are distinct from all hate incidents; Hate incidents are the actions and some behaviors that are motivated by hate but are protected by our First Amendment rights to freedom of expression. 

Examples include name-calling, insulting, and distribution of hate material in public places. 

If hate incidents start to threaten any one person or your property, it can then become a crime. 

 

This report provides some statistics that elected city attorneys reported the number of hate crimes given to prosecutors and the number of cases filed in courts and dispositions of those cases. 

 

key findings from 2018 to 2019 include:

  • Hate crimes total events 1,015.
  • The number of suspects of all reported hate crimes is 967.
  • Hate crime involving a racial bias 523.
    • Anti-African American bias events 243.
    • Anti-Hispanic bias events 110.
  • Hate crimes involving a religion bias 208.
    • Anti-Jewish 141.
    • Anti-Islamic bias events 25. 
    • Hate crimes involving a sexual orientation bias 233.
  • Hate crimes involving a sexual orientation bias were 238 in the year 2018.

 

Homicides in the state of California in 2018 provides some information on homicide, including demographic data on all the victims, persons arrested for homicide, persons sentenced to death, police officers killed in the line of duty, and justifiable homicides. 

 

Some of the key findings include:

  • Homicides that were reported in 2018 were 1,739.
  • 2018, 79.8% of victims of homicide were male, and 20.2% were female.

           The victim-offender relationship was identified:

    • 45% killed by a friend or acquaintance;
    • 31.2% by strangers;
    • 18.2% their spouse / significant other, parents, or children.
  • Location of homicides reported the place of the incident:
    • 35.9% in the street or on the sidewalk;
    • 25.4% in the victim's residence;
    • Ten percent in residence other than the victims.
  • Firearms are the most common weapon in total homicide events. 
  • In 2018, of all the homicides reported with weapons were identified, 68.7% involved firearms.

 

Homicide Reports 2019

 

Homicides in California for the year 2019 contain information about the Crime of homicide, including demographic information on the victims, persons arrested for homicide, persons sentenced to death, Police officers killed in the line of duty, and all justifiable homicides. 

 

Some of the findings in 2018 to 2019 include:

  • Homicides 1,679.
  • In 2019, 80.2% of all homicides victims were males, and 19.8 percent were female;
  • The victim-offender relationship was identified:
    • 45.1% killed by a friend or acquaintance;
    • 32.9% by a stranger;
    • 16.4% by spouse, parent, or child;
  • Other homicides where the victim's race/ethnicity was identified:
    • 44.2% Hispanic;
    • 28.6% African American;
    • 19.8% Caucasian;
    • 7.5% are of another race / ethnic group;
  • Firearms are the primary weapon used in homicides. 
  • In 2019, of all the homicides where a gun was identified, 69% involved a firearm.

 

The above shows some correlation between Covid-19 crimes and Non-Covid-19 related crimes over the last three years.

 

           

Victim-offenders relationship was identified:

    • 45.1% were killed by friends or acquaintances;
    • 32.9% by strangers;
    • 16.4% as spouse/significant other, parents, or children;
  • Homicides that the victim's race/ethnicity was identified:
    • 44.2% Hispanic;
    • 28.6% African American;
    • 19.8% Caucasian;
    • 7.5% are another race / ethnic group;
  • Firearms are the most common weapon in homicides. In 2019, of all the homicides where a gun was identified, 69% involved using a firearm.

 

The above shows some correlation between Covid-19 crimes and Non-Covid-19 related crimes over the last three years.

 

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